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개발자로서 현장에서 일하면서 새로 접하는 기술들이나 알게된 정보 등을 정리하기 위한 블로그입니다. 운 좋게 미국에서 큰 회사들의 프로젝트에서 컬설턴트로 일하고 있어서 새로운 기술들을 접할 기회가 많이 있습니다. 미국의 IT 프로젝트에서 사용되는 툴들에 대해 많은 분들과 정보를 공유하고 싶습니다.
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AWS Certified developer associate exam samples 



구글링 해서 얻은 샘플 시험문제입니다.

혹시 도움이 되시면 참고 하세요.

그리고 이것 말고 다른 자료 있으면 공유 부탁 드립니다. ( solkit70@gmail.com )




https://blog.cloudthat.com/sample-questions-for-amazon-web-services-certified-developer-associate-certification/

 

AWS Fundamentals

1. What is a worker with respect to SWF?

a. Workers are programs that interact with Amazon SWF to get tasks, process the received task, and return the results
b. Workers are ec2 instances which can create s3 buckets and process SQS messages
c. Workers are the people in the warehouse pocessing orders for amazon
d. Workers are the component of IIS which run on windows platform under the w3wp.exe process

2. Which of the below statements about DynamoDB are true? (Select any 2)

a. DynamoDB uses a Transaction-Level Read Consistency
b. DynamoDB uses optimistic concurrency control
c. DynamoDB uses conditional writes for consistency
d. DynamoDB restricts an item access during reads
e. DynamoDB restricts item access during writes

Designing and Developing

1. A Security system monitors 600 cameras, saving image metadata every 1 minute to an Amazon DynamoDB table. Each sample involves 1 kb of data, and the data writes are evenly distributed over time.

How much write throughput is required for the target table?

a. 6000
b. 10
c. 3600
d. 60
e. 600

2. Which read request in DynamoDB returns a response with the most up-to-date data, reflecting the updates from all prior write operations that were successful?

a. Eventual Consistent Reads
b. Conditional reads for consistency
c. Strongly Consistent Reads
d. Not possible

3. You run a Query operation which returned all the data attributes for the selected items. You are only interested in seeing a few attributes. How do you achieve this in DynamoDB?

a. This is not possible
b. Use ProjectExpression
c. Use ExpressionAttribute
d. Use ProjectionExpression

Deployment and Security

1.     AWS Elastic Beanstalk currently supports which of the following platforms? (select any 2)

a. Java with Apache
b. IBM with Websphere
c. .Net
d. Perl

 2. Which of the following features allow organizations to leverage a commercial federation server as an identity bridge, providing secure single sign-on into the AWS console without storing user keys and without additional passwords or sign-on?

a. Web Identification Services
b. Web Identity Federation
c. Active Directory Authentication Services
d. SAML federation

3. Your web service is burning expensive CPU cycles by constantly polling SQS queues for messages. How can you avoid this?

a. Use Elasticache to cache the messages, rather than SQS.
b. Enable SQS Long Polling
c. Modify web service code to only poll a few minutes
d. SQS automatically pushes messages to the web service, so this should not be a problem

Debugging

1.     The output named BackupLoadBalancerDNSName returns the DNS name of the resource with the logical ID of BackupLoadBalancer.

Which of the following represents a valid AWS CloudFormation Template?

a. “Outputs” : {
“BackupLoadBalancerDNSName” : {
“Description”: “The DNSName of the backup load balancer”,
“Value”: { “Ls::GetAtt” : [ “BackupLoadBalancer”, “DNS” ]},
}

b. “Outputs” : {
“BackupLoadBalancerDNSName” : {
“Description”: “The DNSName of the backup load balancer”,
“Value”: { “Fn::GetAtt” : [ “BackupLoadBalancer”, “DNSName” ]},
}

c. “Outputs” : {
“BackupLoadBalancerDNSName” : {
“Description”: “The DNSName of the backup load balancer”,
“Value”: { “Fn::PostAtt” : [ “BackupLoadBalancer”, “Name” ]},
}

d. “Outputs” : {
“BackupLoadBalancerDNSName” : {
“Description”: “The DNSName of the backup load balancer”,
“Value”: { “Fn::GetAtt” : [ “BackupLoadBalancer”,  ]},
}

2. According to below IAM Policy which is the most appropriate possibility?

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{

"Version": "2012-10-17",

 

"Statement": [

 

{

 

"Sid": "Stmt1459162621000",

 

"Effect": "Allow",

 

"Action": ["sns:CreateTopic", "sns:Subscribe","sns:DeleteTopic"],

 

"Resource": [ "*" ]

 

},

 

{

 

"Effect": "Deny",

 

"Action": [ "sns:DeleteTopic"],

 

"Resource": [ "*" ]

 

}

 

]

 

}

a. User can perform CreateTopic,Subscribe and DeleteTopic
b. User  is denied  to perform only DeleteTopic

c. User can perform CreateTopic and Subscribe but denied to perform DeleteTopic operation
d. The above policy is invalid

Answers:

AWS Fundamentals

1.     a

2.     b,c

Designing and Developing

1.     b

2.     c

3.     d

Deployment and Security

1.     a,c

2.     d

3.     b

Debugging

1.      b

2.      c

 

https://blog.cloudthat.com/preparing-for-aws-certified-developer-certification-exam/

 

http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonS3/latest/dev/request-rate-perf-considerations.html

 

http://docs.aws.amazon.com/amazondynamodb/latest/developerguide/QueryAndScanGuidelines.html

 

http://docs.aws.amazon.com/ElasticLoadBalancing/latest/DeveloperGuide/elb-sticky-sessions.html

 




Question NO 18

A startup s photo-sharing site is deployed in a VPC. An ELB distributes web traffic across two subnets. ELB session stickiness is configured to use the AWS-generated session cookie, with a session TTL of 5 minutes. The web server Auto Scaling Group is configured as: min-size=4, max-size=4. The startups preparing for a public launch, by running load-testing software installed on a single EC2 instance running in us-west-2a. After 60 minutes of load-testing, the web server logs show: Which recommendations fan help ensure load-testing HTTP requests are evenly distributed across the four web servers? Choose 2 answers.

|Options

A. Launch and run the load-tester EC2 instance from us-east-1 instead.
B. Re-configure the load-testing software to re-resolve DNS for each web request.
C. Use a 3rd-party load-testing service which offers globally-distributed test clients.
D. Configure ELB and Autoscaling to distribute across us-west-2a and us-west-2f.
E. Configure ELB session stickiness to use the app-specific session cookie.

 

 

Answer: B,E 

 

 

Which statements about DynamoDBare true? Choose 2 answers

A. DynamoDBuses optimistic concurrency control
B. DynamoDBuses a pessimistic locking model
C. DynamoDBrestricts item access during reads
D. DynamoDBrestricts item access during writes
E. DynamoDBuses conditional writes for consistency


Answer: A,E

 

 

AWS-Certified-Developer-Associate Exam Dumps Detail: AWS-Certified-Developer-Associate Real Questions

NO.1 EBS Snapshots occur _____

A.  Synchronously
B.  Asynchronously
C.  Weekly

Answer: B

 

 

While creating the snapshots using the API, which Action should I be using?


A.  DeploySnapshot

B.  CreateSnapshot

C.  MakeSnapShot

D.  Fresh Snapshot

 

Answer: B

 

 

https://tutorialsnation.com/aws-certification-dumps

 

255 Questions




 

http://m8010-241-dumps-pdf.blogspot.com/2016/03/amazon-aws-certified-developer.html

 

NO.1 Which features can be used to restrict access to data in S3? Choose 2 answers
A. Set an S3 ACL on the bucket or the object.
B. Set an S3 Bucket policy.
C. Use S3 Virtual Hosting
D. Create a CloudFront distribution for the bucket
E. Enable IAM Identity Federation.
Answer: A,B

AWS-Certified-Developer-Associate demo  

NO.2 Which of the following services are included at no additional cost with the use of the AWS
platform? Choose 2 answers
A. Auto Scaling
B. Elastic Load Balancing
C. Simple Workflow Service
D. CloudFormation
E. Elastic Compute Cloud
F. Simple Storage Service
Answer: A,D

AWS-Certified-Developer-Associate Practice Test  

NO.3 What is one key difference between an Amazon EBS-backed and an instance-store backed
instance?
A. Virtual Private Cloud requires EBS backed instances
B. Instance-store backed instances can be stopped and restarted.
C. Auto scaling requires using Amazon EBS-backed instances.
D. Amazon EBS-backed instances can be stopped and restarted
Answer: D

NO.4 What item operation allows the retrieval of multiple items from a DynamoDB table in a single
API call?
A. BatchGetItem
B. GetItemRange
C. GetMultipleItems
D. GetItem
Answer: A

AWS-Certified-Developer-Associate study guide   
AWS-Certified-Developer-Associate test answers  

NO.5 How can software determine the public and private IP addresses of the Amazon EC2 instance
that it is running on?
A. Query the local instance metadata.
B. Use ipconfig or ifconfig command.
C. Query the local instance userdata.
D. Query the appropriate Amazon CloudWatch metric.
Answer: A

AWS-Certified-Developer-Associate dumps torrent  

NO.6 What is the maximum number of S3 Buckets available per AWS account?
A. 500 per account
B. there is no limit
C. 100 per account
D. 100 per IAM user
E. 100 per region
Answer: E

 

 

http://www.certificationking.com/download/Amazon-AWS.htm

 

 

AWS_certified_developer_associate_examsample

 

Which of the following statements about SQS is true?

A. Messages will be delivered exactly once and messages will be delivered in First in, First out order

B. Messages will be delivered exactly once and message delivery order is indeterminate

C. Messages will be delivered one or more times and messages will be delivered in First in, First out order

D. Messages will be delivered one or more times and message delivery order is indeterminate

EC2 instances are launched from Amazon Machine Images (AMIs). A given public AMI:

A. can be used to launch EC2 instances in any AWS region

B. can only be used to launch EC2 instances in the same country as the AMI is stored

C. can only be used to launch EC2 instances in the same AWS region as the AMI is stored

D. can only be used to launch EC2 instances in the same AWS availability zone as the AMI is stored

Company B provides an online image recognition service and utilizes SQS to decouple system components for scalability. The SQS consumers poll the imaging queue as often as possible to keep end- to-end throughput as high as possible. However, Company B is realizing that polling in tight loops is burning CPU cycles and increasing costs with empty responses. How can Company B reduce the number of empty responses?

A. Set the imaging queue VisibilityTimeout attribute to 20 seconds

B. Set the imaging queue ReceiveMessageWaitTimeSeconds attribute to 20 seconds

C. Set the imaging queue MessageRetentionPeriod attribute to 20 seconds

D. Set the DelaySeconds parameter of a message to 20 seconds

You attempt to store an object in the US-STANDARD region in Amazon S3, and receive a confirmation that it has been successfully stored. You then immediately make another API call and attempt to read this object. S3 tells you that the object does not exist. What could explain this behavior?

A. US-STANDARD uses eventual consistency and it can take time for an object to be readable in a bucket.

B. Objects in Amazon S3 do not become visible until they are replicated to a second region.

C. US-STANDARD imposes a 1 second delay before new objects are readable

D. You exceeded the bucket object limit, and once this limit is raised the object will be visible.

You have reached your account limit for the number of CloudFormation stacks in a region. How do you increase your limit?

A. Make an API call

B. Contact AWS

C. Use the console

D. You cannot increase your limit

Which statements about DynamoDB are true? (Pick 2 correct answers)

A. DynamoDB uses a pessimistic locking model

B. DynamoDB uses optimistic concurrency control

C. DynamoDB uses conditional writes for consistency

D. DynamoDB restricts item access during reads

E.  DynamoDB restricts item access during writes

 

 

 

 

 

1) Your CloudFormation template launches a two-tier web application in us-east-1. When you attempt to create a development stack in us-west-1, the process fails.

What could be the problem?

A) The AMIs referenced in the template are not available in us-west-1.

B) The IAM roles referenced in the template are not valid in us-west-1.

C) Two ELB Classic Load Balancers cannot have the same Name tag.

D) CloudFormation templates can be launched only in a single region.

 

 

2) Your application reads commands from an SQS queue and sends them to web services hosted by your partners. When a partner's endpoint goes down, your application continually returns their commands to the queue. The repeated attempts to deliver these commands use up resources. Commands that can’t be delivered must not be lost.

How can you accommodate the partners' broken web services without wasting your resources?

A) Create a delay queue and set DelaySeconds to 30 seconds.

B) Requeue the message with a VisibilityTimeout of 30 seconds.

C) Create a dead letter queue and set the Maximum Receives to 3.

D) Requeue the message with a DelaySeconds of 30 seconds.

 

 

3) Your application must write to an SQS queue. Your corporate security policies require that AWS credentials are always encrypted and are rotated at least once a week.

How can you securely provide credentials that allow your application to write to the queue?

A) Have the application fetch an access key from an Amazon S3 bucket at run time.

B) Launch the application's Amazon EC2 instance with an IAM role.

C) Encrypt an access key in the application source code.

D) Enroll the instance in an Active Directory domain and use AD authentication.

 

 

4) Which operation could return temporarily inconsistent results?

A) Getting an object from Amazon S3 after it was initially created

B) Selecting a row from an Amazon RDS database after it was inserted

C) Selecting a row from an Amazon RDS database after it was deleted

D) Getting an object from Amazon S3 after it was deleted

 

 

5) You are creating a DynamoDB table with the following attributes:

 PurchaseOrderNumber (partition key)  CustomerID

 PurchaseDate

 TotalPurchaseValue

 

One of your applications must retrieve items from the table to calculate the total value of purchases for a particular customer over a date range.

 

What secondary index do you need to add to the table?

A) Local secondary index with a partition key of CustomerID and sort key of PurchaseDate; project the TotalPurchaseValue attribute

B) Local secondary index with a partition key of PurchaseDate and sort key of CustomerID; project the TotalPurchaseValue attribute

C) Global secondary index with a partition key of CustomerID and sort key of PurchaseDate; project the TotalPurchaseValue attribute

D) Global secondary index with a partition key of PurchaseDate and sort key of CustomerID; project the TotalPurchaseValue attribute

 

 

6) Your CloudFormation template has the following Mappings section:

"Mappings" : {

  "RegionMap" : {

    "us-east-1"

    "us-west-1"

: { "32" : "ami-6411e20d"},

: { "32" : "ami-c9c7978c"}

} }

 

 

Which JSON snippet will result in the value "ami-6411e20d" when a stack is launched in us-east-1?

A) { "Fn::FindInMap" : [ "Mappings", { "RegionMap" : ["us-east-1", "us-west-1"] }, "32"]}

B) { "Fn::FindInMap" : [ "Mappings", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, "32"]}

C) { "Fn::FindInMap" : [ "RegionMap", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, "32"]}

D) { "Fn::FindInMap" : [ "RegionMap", { "RegionMap" : "AWS::Region" }, "32"]}

 

 

7) Your web application reads an item from your DynamoDB table, changes an attribute, and then writes the item back to the table. You need to ensure that one process doesn't overwrite a simultaneous change from another process.

How can you ensure concurrency?

A) Implement optimistic concurrency by using a conditional write.

B) Implement pessimistic concurrency by using a conditional write.

C) Implement optimistic concurrency by locking the item upon read.

D) Implement pessimistic concurrency by locking the item upon read.

 

 

8) Your application triggers events that must be delivered to all your partners. The exact partner list is constantly changing: some partners run a highly available endpoint, and other partners’ endpoints are online only a few hours each night. Your application is mission-critical, and communication with your partners must not introduce delay in its operation. A delay in delivering the event to one partner cannot delay delivery to other partners.

What is an appropriate way to code this?

A) Implement an Amazon SWF task to deliver the message to each partner. Initiate an Amazon SWF workflow execution.

B) Send the event as an Amazon SNS message. Instruct your partners to create an HTTP. Subscribe their HTTP endpoint to the Amazon SNS topic.

C) Create one SQS queue per partner. Iterate through the queues and write the event to each one. Partners retrieve messages from their queue.

D) Send the event as an Amazon SNS message. Create one SQS queue per partner that subscribes to the Amazon SNS topic. Partners retrieve messages from their queue.

 

 

9) You have reached your account limit for the number of CloudFormation stacks in a region.

How do you increase your limit?

A) Use the AWS Command Line Interface.

B) Send an email to limits@amazon.com with the subject “CloudFormation.”

C) Use the Support Center in the AWS Management Console.

D) All service limits are fixed and cannot be increased.

 

 

10) You have a three-tier web application (web, app, and data) in a single Amazon VPC. The web and app tiers each span two Availability Zones, are in separate subnets, and sit behind ELB Classic Load Balancers. The data tier is a Multi-AZ Amazon RDS MySQL database instance in database subnets. When you call the database tier from your app tier instances, you receive a timeout error.

What could be causing this?

A) The IAM role associated with the app tier instances does not have rights to the MySQL database.

B) The security group for the Amazon RDS instance does not allow traffic on port 3306 from the app

instances.

C) The Amazon RDS database instance does not have a public IP address.

D) There is no route defined between the app tier and the database tier in the Amazon VPC.

 



 

Answers

 

1) A – AMIs are stored in a region and cannot be accessed in other regions. To use the AMI in another region, you must copy it to that region. IAM roles are valid across the entire account.

 

2) C – After a message is taken from the queue and returned for the maximum number of retries, it is automatically sent to a dead letter queue, if one has been configured. It stays there until you retrieve it for forensic purposes.

 

3) B – IAM roles are based on temporary security tokens, so they are rotated automatically. Keys in the source code cannot be rotated (and are a very bad idea). It’s impossible to retrieve credentials from an S3 bucket if you don’t already have credentials for that bucket. Active Directory authorization will not grant access to AWS resources.

 

4) D – S3 has eventual consistency for overwrite PUTS and DELETES.

 

5) C – The query is for a particular CustomerID, so a Global Secondary Index is needed for a different partition key. To retrieve only the desired date range, the PurchaseDate must be the sort key. Projecting the TotalPurchaseValue into the index provides all the data needed to satisfy the use case.

 

6) C – Learn how to create and reference mappings here.

 

7) A – Optimistic concurrency depends on checking a value upon save to ensure that it has not changed. Pessimistic concurrency prevents a value from changing by locking the item or row in the database. DynamoDB does not support item locking, and conditional writes are perfect for implementing optimistic concurrency.

 

8) D – There are two challenges here: the command must be “fanned out” to a variable pool of partners, and your app must be decoupled from the partners because they are not highly available. Sending the command as an SNS message achieves the fan-out via its publication/subscribe model, and using an SQS queue for each partner decouples your app from the partners. Writing the message to each queue directly would cause more latency for your app and would require your app to monitor which partners were active. It would be difficult to write an Amazon SWF workflow for a rapidly changing set of partners.

 

9) C – The Support Center in the AWS Management Console allows customers to request limit increases by creating a case.

10) B – Security groups block all network traffic by default, so if a group is not correctly configured, it can lead to a timeout error. MySQL security, not IAM, controls MySQL security. All subnets in an Amazon VPC have routes to all other subnets. Internal traffic within an Amazon VPC does not require public IP addresses.

 

10) B – Security groups block all network traffic by default, so if a group is not correctly configured, it can lead to a timeout error. MySQL security, not IAM, controls MySQL security. All subnets in an Amazon VPC have routes to all other subnets. Internal traffic within an Amazon VPC does not require public IP addresses.

 

http://free-braindumps.com/amazon/free-aws-certified-developer-associate-braindumps.html?p=2

 


 


2018 개의 해 문란하게 사세요. 섹스 하세요.




1. 오늘 집에가지 말고 여관 가세요. -전인권-



기억도 가물가물 하다.

아마 20대 였을거다.


들국화 콘서트를 갔었다.


금요일이었던 것 같다. (목요일인가?)


노래가 다 끝났고 당연히 우리는 앵콜을 외쳤다.


앵콜을 받으면서 전인권이 이렇게 말했다.


"여러분~~

대마초는 나쁜거예요.

대마초 하면 경찰이 잡아가요.


근데 섹스는 나쁜거 아니예요.

그거 해도 경찰이 안 잡아가요.

섹스는 좋은거예요.


여기 오신 분들 오늘 다 여관 가세요.


가서 좋은거 하세요.


섹스는 좋은 거예요."


그 멘트 이후에 어떤 노래를 앵콜곡으로 불렀는지 생각 안난다.


20년 전 일이라 모든 것이 희미해 졌지만 전인권의 그 멘트만은 또렷하게 기억 난다.


그 이후 그 말을 계속 곱씹으며 사유(思惟)의 여행을 많이 했기 때문일 거다.


20대 이후의 내 인생과 나의 사상에도 많은 영향을 미쳤을 거다.





아쉽게도 당시 나는 혼자 콘서트장에 갔기 때문에 전인권의 말대로 할 수는 없었다....




2. 문란하게 사세요. 어른들 말 듣지 좀 마세요. (김갑수)



그래도 나도 어른이랍시고 여중생과 그 엄마가 있는데 그 여중생한테 어떻게 살아야 되는지 얘기해야 하는 상황이 발생했다. 한 5년전 쯤인가?...

한창 싸이의 강남스타일이 유행했을 때니까.


난 싸이가 왜 저렇게 성공했다고 생각하냐고 물었다.


걔가 말 하드라.. 부모말 안 들어서라고....


물론 내가 그 대답이 나오도록 그 이전에 행동하고 발언 했을 거다.


내가 덧 붙였다.


"절대 부모 말 듣지 마라

니가 사회에 나가는 게 10년도 훨씬 뒤 일텐데...

니네 부모가 나도 그렇고 대학생 때 지금 세상이 이 처럼 될 거라고 전혀 예측 못했다.

하물며 니가 중학생인데 니 사회에 나갈 때 이 사회가 어떻게 변해 있을 줄 알겠니?

부모들은 그냥 자기가 경험한 틀 안에서 생각해서 말하는 거다.

옳은 말 일리가 없다.


그냥 니 맘대로 살고 명심해야 될 건 절대 니 부모 말 듣지 마라."






김용민이 진행하는 맘마이스에 김갑수가 나와서 똑 같은 말을 하더라.


"여러분 2018년은 문란하게 사세요.

제발 어른들 말 좀 듣지 마세요.

지금의 틀은 흔적도 없이 사라지고 바뀔 텐데

왜 바보같이 그 틀속에 들어가서 자리 잡으려고 합니까?"


2018년 개띠해에 40대인 나에게 다시 말한다.


기존 틀 속에 갇히지 마라. 지금까지 살아왔듯이 내 맘대로 살자.

1등이 되려면 기존의 1등을 제치는 것 보다 1등이 없는 영역을 내가 만들어서 먼저 찜하는게 가장 쉬운 길이다.

그냥 쉽게 가자.





3. 섹스하세요. (불금쇼)


이번 불금쇼 117회 기획 참 참신했다.

가끔 나오는 게스트인 제이양 부부의 가정사에 대한 국민참여재판 형식.

실제 제이양 남편이 모텔 갔다 들킨 사연을 가지고 실제 변호사를 불러서 국민 참여 재판 형식으로 진행을 했다.




http://www.podbbang.com/ch/9917?e=22500104



방송 내용에 대해서는 길게 쓰지 않겠고 마지막 멘트가 기분 좋았다.


"그냥 꼴릴 때 하세요.

섹스하세요."


예전 들국화 콘써트에서 들은 전인권의 말도 떠올리게 하는 그런 결말 이었다.


이젠 예전처럼 그렇게 임펙트 있게 다가 오지는 않는다.


전인권 덕분에 그쪽으로 사유의 여행을 많이 다녀서 일까?


똥개의 해 2018년 올 한해 모두들 이런 젊은 마음으로 발랄하게 당돌하게 엉까면서 살았으면 좋겠다.








How Blockchain Technology Made It to Real Estate Business






Every now and then, we get reports of another old-fashioned industry embracing Blockchain and its innovations. Even though this parade is mostly led by IT-related industries, such as financesocial media or eSports, their more traditional peers seem to gain pace.


지금 우리는 Blockchain 과 그것의 혁신성을 수용하고 있는 기존 산업에 대한 보고서를 매일 보고 있습니다. 이 신기술이 금융, 소셜미디어 혹은 eSports같은 정보통신과 관계된 산업이 이끌고 있지만 기존의 전통적인 기술분야도 이러한 신기술로 인한 변화에 보조를 맞춰가고 있는 것으로 보입니다.


There have been news suggesting that such cumbersome industries as logistics and advertisement gradually let Blockchain into their sacred realms.


물류와 광고 같은 복잡하고 다루기 힘든 번거로운 산업분야에서 점차 이 Blockchain을 그들의 성지로 들여오고 있습니다.


One such industries, real estate, seems to have embraced Blockchain under the radar. Certain governments are testing Blockchain solutions to run auctions on public land plots or confiscated properties, and most of them are satisfied and deem the innovation worthy of further development.


그러한 산업 중 하나인 부동산도 이 Blockchain 에 레이더를 맞추고 있는 것으로 보입니다. 어떤 특정 정부들은 공공 토지 또는 압수된 자산에 대한 경매를 진행하는데 이 Blockchain을 사용하는 솔루션을 테스트 하고 있습니다. 그리고 그들 대부분은 그 테스트 결과에 대해 만족해 하며 이 신기술이 앞으로 개발할 만한 충분한 가치가 있는 혁신으로 생각하고 있습니다.



Unfortunately, real estate as a business rarely produces any noticeable news when it comes to employment of distributed ledgers.


불행히도 비지니스로서의 부동산업은 분산원장 (distributed ledgers) 의 적용이란 부분으로 들어가면 그렇게 크게 주목할 만한 뉴스는 거의 없는 상태이다.


* 분산원장기술 (distributed ledger technology) : 수많은 사적 거래 정보를 개별적 데이터 블록으로 만들고, 이를 체인처럼 차례차례 연결하는 블록체인기술을 말한다. 


https://blog.naver.com/bithumb_official/221154328757






Tokenization of Real Estate



There is in fact a plethora of companies and startups that use Blockchain-based solutions in the real estate industry. While their approaches may differ, there is one thing they have in common.


실제로 부동산 업계에서는 블록체인을 기반으로 하는 솔루션을 사용하는 수많은 회사 맟 스타트업들이 있습니다. 그들의 접근 방식들은 다르지만 공통점이 한가지 있습니다.


Most of them offer some form of property tokenization. The general idea of tokenization is that people may invest in real estate by purchasing digital tokens that represent real property.


그들 중 대부분은 property tokenization 형태를 제공합니다. tokenization 의 일반적인 개념은 사람들이 물리적으로 실존하는  property를 디지털 토큰으로 구매하는 방법으로 부동산업에 투자할 것이라는 겁니다.


Said tokens are used as a sort of share by their holders, even though officially they are not treated as such. Legal constraints in most jurisdictions would prohibit token issuers from officially handling their tokens as shares.


위에 상기한 토큰들은 소지자들에 의해 일종의 공유되는 것으로 사용된다. (공식적으로는 그렇게 취급되지는 않지만...). 대부분의 jurisdictions에서는 토큰 발행자들이 토큰을 주식으로 공식화 해 거래하는 것을 금지함으로서 법적 구속력을 행사하고 있습니다.


Such tokens, on the one hand, entitle their holders to own a certain percentage of a future structure or building proportionally to the amount they have purchased. Construction companies and contractors, on the other hand, directly or indirectly sell such tokens to raise funds for said construction project.


그런 토크들은 한편으로는 토큰 소유자들에게 그들이 구매한 만큼의 빌딩 지분이나 미래 건축물의 일정한 퍼센테이지에 대한 소유권을 부여하고 있습니다. 건축회사들과 계약자들은 또 한편으로 직간접적으로 상기한 건설프로젝트들에 대한 자금을 마련하기 위해 토큰을 판매하고 있습니다.


In a perfect world, both parties remain satisfied: contractors have enough money to do their job while future owners have guarantees they will eventually receive a return on their ownership share. To ensure that both parties remain honest, such real estate tokenization systems often introduce some sort of smart contracts that regulate relations between both parties.


이러한 두 부류가 다 만족할 수 있어야 완벽한 세상이 됩니다. 계약자들은 계약을 위한 충분한 자금을 가지고 있고 미래의 소유자들은 결국 미래에 그 소유권을 획득할 것이라는 보장권을 가지고 있어야 합니다. 이러한 것들이 이뤄지기 위해 부동산 업계의 tokenization systems들은 이 두 부류들 사이의 관계를 규제하는 일종의 스마트 계약을 도입합니다.


In the future, when the Internet of Things is deployed, tokenization can take another step forward by making token holders the only ones capable of using the property they have purchased. This can happen in several different ways, starting from using of smart locks and ending with the entire apartment environment responding solely to the requests of the holder of a certain private key.


앞으로 IoT가 도입이 되면 tokenization은 토큰 소유자들이 그들이 구매한 자산 (부동산)을 사용할 수 있는 유일한 소유권자가 되도록 함으로서 한 단계 더 앞으로 나아갈 수 있습니다. 이러한 일은 몇가지 다른 방법으로 이뤄질 수 있습니다. smart locks을 만들고 토큰 소유자가 특정  private key (열쇠)를 가지고 있어야만 열고 사용할 수 있는 전반에 걸친 아파트 환경을 제공함으로서 이뤄질 수도 있습니다.



Others advantages of tokenization include easy distribution of profits from real estate, simplified title registries, lowered entry thresholds for real estate investors, and complete traceability and verifiability of all transactions ensured by Blockchain.


tokenization 의 다른 장점으로는 부동산 수익의 분배를 쉽게 하고 타이틀 등록을 간소화하며, 부동산 투자가들에게 진입 문턱을 낮출 뿐 아니라 블럭체인에 의한 모든 거래를 완벽하게 추적 및 검증 할 수 있다는 것입니다.


While it all looks great in theory, current attempts to introduce tokenization to real estate still have to deal with miles of red tape (or kilometers in other jurisdictions). The entire air of uncertainty surrounding Blockchain in the eyes of the powers that be makes full-fledged deployment of such systems more a matter of diplomacy than engineering.


이론적으로는 아주 근사해 보입니다. 하지만 부동산 산업에 이 tokenization을 도입하려는 현재의 시도들은 아직 복잡하고 지루한 단계들을 넘어야 하고 그 외의 여러 법제화를 거쳐야 합니다. 블럭체인을 둘러싼 불확실성은 그러한 시스템을 도입하는 것이 기술 공학적인 문제라기 보다는 외교적인 문제가 더 주요 관건이라 할 수 있습니다.


Still, there are notable examples of projects that attempt to bring the future closer.


그럼에도 불구하고 미래를 좀 더 앞당기기 위한 주목할 만한 선도적인 프로젝트들이 있습니다.




It’s Happening Now


One such company, only operates in Spain, the Caribbean Islands and the US and charges a 10% management fee. On the plus side, it offers monthly audit, lack of minimum investment thresholds and payouts of dividends on real estate project revenues.


그러한 회사들 중 하나는 스페인, 캐리비안 제도 및 미국에서만 운영되며 10%의 관리 수수료를 부여하고 있습니다. 긍정적인 면은 월별 감사와 소액으로 투자에 참여할 수 있고 프로젝트 수익에 대한 배당금을 지급하는 것입니다.


Another similar project offers property tokenization, covers only construction projects in London and its suburbs. By purchasing a token, a user becomes an investor entitled to receive dividends on future revenues from the building. Once construction is over and the structure is sold, the revenues are distributed among investors. It is still unclear, however, whether the real estate will be tokenized or the token would entitle one to invest.


또 다른 비슷한 프로젝트는 property tokenization을 제공합니다. 런던과 그 근교의 건설 프로젝트만을 커버하고 있습니다. 이 방법은 토큰을 구매함으로서 사용자는 미래 빌딩에서 나오는 수익에 대한 배당금을 받을 수 있는 투자자로 인정되는 것입니다. 일단 건설이 완료되고 그 건축물이 팔리게 되면 그 수익은 투자자들에게 분배 됩니다. 이 방법은 아직 완전히 클리어하지는 않습니다. 어쨌든 그 부동산이 토큰화되는지 아니면 토큰이 투자의 자격을 부여하는지 둘 중 하나일 겁니다.


Yet another real estate project powered by Blockchain backs its tokens with the power produced by a solar farm in Japan. It does not focus on any particular market or jurisdiction. Owners can tokenize their property and make it available for investment by purchasing the platform’s native tokens. Dividends are automatically distributed among token holders via smart contracts.


블럭체인 기술을 배경으로 토큰을 사용한 또 하나의 부동산 프로젝트는 일본에 있는 태양광 농장에서 전력을 생산하는 부문에서 입니다. 이것은 어떤 특정한 시장이나 jurisdiction 에 포커스를 둔 것이 아닙니다. 소유자들은 그들의 자산을 토큰화 할 수 있으며 플랫폼의 네이티브 토큰들을 구매함으로서 투자를 가능하도록 만듭니다.



While this approach seemingly solves a number of specific problems, such as the issue of investing in overseas real estate and the entry threshold issues that hinder wider audiences from entering the business, the platform itself is not fully deployed yet. The company states, however, that this will happen by March 2018 provided their crowdsale campaign is successful.


이러한 접근 법은 표면적으로는 여러 특정 문제점들을 해결하는 것처럼 보인다. 예를 들어 해외 부동산 투자의 문제점이나 이 부동산업에 더 많은 잠재 고객이 진입하면서 겪는 어려움들 등이다. 이 플랫폼 자체는 아직 완전히 배포되지는 않았습니다. 이 회사 상태는 어쨌든 2018는 3월 안에 crowdsale 캠페인을 성공적으로 진행함으로서 현실화 될 것이라고 합니다.


One final example uses the tokenization model to bring real estate closer to people. The platform is generally positioned as a decentralized real estate marketplace that also enables land title registry. Ethereum smart contracts enable brokers, customers, sellers, and real estate agents to legally sign all transactions. The option is viable since the smart contracts allow for tracing the transactions and making them verifiable. Currently it is being tested in California, and, should it prove successful, it is likely that it will be deployed in other jurisdictions.


마지막 예는 tokenization 모델을 사용해 사람들에게 부동산을 좀 더 가깝게 다가가게 만드는 일을 하고 있는 것입니다. 이 플랫폼은 일반적으로 분산된 부동산 시장으로 포지셔닝 하면서 토지 소유권 등록을 가능하도록 합니다. 이더리움 스마트 콘트랙트는 브로커, 고객, 판매자 그리고 부동산 에이전트 모든 거래 과정에서 합법적으로 서명하는 것을 가능하게 합니다. 이 옵션은 스마트 콘트랙트가 거래 (트랜잭션) 들을 추적하고 검증할 수 있도록 함 으로서 실제 사용 가능합니다. 현재 이 방법은 캘리포니아에서 테스트 중이며 성공할 경우 다른 jurisdictions 에도 적용될 것으로 보입니다.




Conclusion


All in all, Blockchain-focused projects constitute a minority of companies engaged in their respective area, and real estate is no exception. While the list above is hardly exhaustive, it still illustrates the direction the industry is likely to take in the future.


결론적으로 현재 블록체인을 사용한 프로젝트들은 해당 지역에 속한 소수의 기업들로 구성되며 부동산 산업도 예외는 아닙니다. 위에 언급된 예들은 전체를 설명하기에는 부족하지만 미래에 선택하게 될 산업계의 방향성을 묘사해 주고 있습니다.


Tokenization and Blockchainization of different industries, from finance and eSports to logistics and real estate, is seemingly the new fad for businesses across the globe. So far, most  industries have only been testing the waters to make sure the innovation actually works and fulfills its initial promise.


금융업, eSports 에서부터 물류 부동산업에 이르기 까지 여러 다른 산업분야의 Tokenization 과 Blockchainization 은 전 세계의 산업들에 퍼져나가고 있는 새로운 유행처럼 보입니다. 지금까지 대부분의 산업분야들은 이러한 혁신이 실제로 작동하고 풍부화 하기 위한 초기화 단계의 테스트 수준에 있습니다. 


In the future, however, it’s quite likely that the companies that refuse to introduce Blockchain to their operations will be a minority and suffer from competitive disadvantages.


어쨌든 앞으로 이 블록체인을 사업에 적용하기를 거부하는 회사들은 소수일 것이고 경쟁에서 불리해 질 것이라는 것은 꽤 설득력이 있어보입니다.








Happy New Year 2018



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